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The Guild welcomes all amateur and professional fiber artists including knitters, crocheters, weavers, spinners, fabric designers, basket makers, quilters and embroiderers. Learn how to access digital magazines, e-books and audiobooks using the RBDigital app and webpage. Bear Hollow Zoo Ages 18 months—6 years are invited for a morning of animals, crafts and stories. Children must be chaperoned and registration is required.

Discover a variety of vendors selling everything from sweets, jewelry, Jamaican food, flavored vinegar, loose leaf teas, vegan cupcakes and more. A portion of proceeds help support the Culinary Kitchen of Athens, a shared commercial kitchen to help small local businesses. This information created an unpleasant sensation in sundry delicate stomachs. According to William L. The tea tasted as though it were made from the leaves of the sage-brush—literally sage tea.

The biscuit was made without soda, but with plenty of alkali, harmonizing with the great quantity of alkali dust we had already swallowed. At most dining stops, meal prices were one dollar, and on the California section of the Central Pacific the prices were reduced to seventy-five cents if the diner paid in silver rather than in paper money.

Neither the Union Pacific nor the Central Pacific operated their eating houses, preferring to contract them to private individuals, with no required standard of service. Most of them were in rough frame buildings filled with long tables upon which large platters of food were waiting when passengers descended from the trains. Gradually the individual stations achieved reputations for certain specialties such as beefsteak at Laramie, hot biscuits at Green River, antelope at Sidney, fish at Colfax.

The most frequently praised dining stop was Evanston, Wyoming, where mountain trout was the specialty.

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Because Cheyenne was listed in the guidebooks as the largest city between Omaha and Sacramento, many passengers expected a superior quality of food service there. Between stops for meals the passengers were diverted by a procession of unfamiliar wildlife along each side of the track, antelope and prairie dogs being the most commonly seen. Far more antelope than buffalo ranged along the Union Pacific tracks, and long files of these fleet-footed animals often approached very close to passing trains, apparently racing with the cars, and usually winning.

Although the Union Pacific frowned upon the practice, eager hunters sometimes fired upon these animals with rifles and pistols from the open windows of the cars. Few hits were recorded. Prairie-dog villages also were close enough so that passengers could observe these gregarious rodents sitting at the entrances to their burrows. Elk, wolves, and bears were often seen as the iron horse thundered across the West, and one traveler was sure that he saw a pack of wild dogs trotting along parallel with the railroad, until he learned that they were coyotes.

Swarms of grasshoppers and crickets were another unfamiliar sight; they sometimes descended upon the tracks and caused the locomotive wheels to spin into a temporary stall. Although only thinning herds of buffalo remained near the Union Pacific right-of-way after train travel began, the iron horses of the Kansas Pacific which ran less than two hundred miles to the south and connected with the Union Pacific at Cheyenne occasionally were surrounded by buffalo and had to slow down or wait until the herd passed.

One traveler on the Kansas Pacific told of seeing a herd that extended as far as the eye could reach. In trying this strategic feat one specimen found himself forcibly lifted into the air and thrown into the ditch, where he lay upon his back, his cloven feet nourishing madly. In its early days, before connections were scheduled with other railroads, the Kansas Pacific engineers willingly stopped trains to permit the passengers to leave the cars and shoot at passing buffalo. The buffalo and other animals entertained the travelers against a constantly changing background of scenery which grew more and more fascinating as they left the plains behind.

The first glimpse of the snowy range of the Rocky Mountains always sent a wave of excitement through the passenger cars. And here lay the first great range in the pureness of white; distant, to be sure, but there it lay, enshrined in beauty. European travelers compared Weber Canyon to gateways to the Alps. Along the way were occasional reminders of pioneers of a previous day—the bones of long-dead oxen and horses beside the deep-rutted trails where covered wagons had crawled, a solitary grave marker, a broken wheel, a piece of discarded furniture.

When there were no animals or scenery to entertain or awe, there was always the ever-changing weather of the West. The train on which Harvey Rice was journeying to California in ran through a typically violent Great Plains thunderstorm. The lightning flashed in every direction, and electric balls of fire rolled over the plains. It seemed as if the artillery of heaven had made the valley a target and that we were doomed to instant destruction. But happily our fears were soon dissipated. The storm was succeeded by a brilliant rainbow. Heavy rains were likely to flood the tracks, and in the early years before roadbeds were well ballasted the ties sank into the mud.

One traveler was startled to see the car behind him churning up such a foam of mud that it resembled a boat rushing along on water. It was not unusual for hailstorms to break car windows, and tornadoes could lift a train off the track. One of the legends of the Kansas Pacific concerns a tornadic waterspout that dropped out of a massive thunderstorm, washed out six thousand feet of track, and swallowed up a freight train. Winter travelers could expect magnificent snowstorms or fierce blizzards which sometimes turned a journey across the continent into an ordeal. Rae might not have been so fortunate had he been traveling on the Kansas Pacific, which suffered as severely from blizzards as it did from thunder squalls.

High winds drifted both snow and sand into cuts, leveling them across the tops, and the sturdy little wood-burning locomotives would have to back up, be uncoupled from the cars, and then run at full speed into the snowbanked cuts. Engineer Cy Warman told of bucking an eighteen-foot drift with double engines so hard that his locomotive trembled and shook as if it were about to be crushed to pieces. A group of snowbound train travelers who crowded into a hotel in Hays City, Kansas, spent an uncomfortably cold night and at daylight found their beds covered with snow which had drifted through cracks in walls and roof.

As the buffalo herds also fled far to the north and south, there was no economic reason for the horse Indians to approach the tracks. Although the Pawnees had virtually abandoned their horsebuffalo culture and lived off what they could cadge from white men, the warriors still shaved their heads to a tuft, painted their faces, and wore feathers and blankets.

To travelers fresh from the East the Pawnees had a very bloodthirsty appearance, and according to the guidebooks every one of them had several scalps waving from the tops of lodgepoles. Anywhere across western Nebraska or Wyoming, a traveler might catch a quick glimpse of a passing Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, or Crow staring at the iron horse, but they were few and far between. Not until the train reached Nevada was there a plenitude of Shoshones and Paiutes hanging about every station and using their treaty rights with the Central Pacific to ride the cars back and forth.

Because these desert Indians were generally covered with dust and were often unbathed there was no water readily available , the fastidious passengers found them objectionable, and the Central Pacific gradually put restrictions on their use of trains. Despite these docile remnants of the Great Plains tribes, some travelers spent a good deal of time worrying about Indian attacks.

But train wrecks, and not ambushes, were the most immediate danger. Because of the relatively slow speeds of the early years, bruises rather than fatalities were the likely results unless the accident occurred on a high bridge or mountain shoulder. Poor tracks and hot boxes overheating of axle bearings caused many wrecks, and a surprising number of passengers suffered injuries from falling or jumping out of open car windows. Every instant we expected to roll down the ravine.

We ordered the ladies to cling to the sides of the seats and keep their feet clear of the floor. It seemed as if that train could never be stopped! But it was brought to a standstill upon the brink of an embankment. Had the cars gone a few rods further the reader would probably never have been troubled by these hastily written pages. The collision threw the locomotive off the track, but a telegrapher aboard climbed the nearest pole, tapped the line, and summoned a relief engine.

Such encounters with cattle were among the most common causes of train wrecks in the West, and railroad men and ranchers were in constant friction for more than half a century over the rights of cattle to trespass on railroad property.

amateur hour pug ironhorse novels book 1 Manual

In many fashionable spas, Bath chairs, fur- nished with a handle and multiplying-wheels, are frequently seen, in which invalids can move themselves about. Ransome is a modification of a tricycle, with levers and treadles. The drawbacks are want of control, steering-brakes, loss of power, and expense. There are numberless varieties and patterns of these machines, all of which have their admirers. Amongst the best, if not the very best, is one manufactured by Mr. Andrews, of Dublin, the construction of which will be best understood by reference to Figs. The frame of this velocipede is made of the best inch-square iron, seven feet long between perpendiculars.

The treadles are made of the best ash, IJ inch by IJ inch, 6 feet 6 inches long. The felloes are made of best ash, bent in one piece, so that they only require one joining ; light steel tires. Andrews makes his wheels 3 feet 4 inches high; but if similar wheels are made for a bicycle they should not exceed 32 or 34 inches high.

The fore wheels move freely on an axle, which is fixed by a pivot, to the reach or frame, and a steering-handle is likewise attached to the axle by a lever-brace. The reach is curved upwards, to support a cross-bar on which the treadles are suspended: it is forked under the seat, and lies over the cranked axle on brass bearings. This form of velocipede admits of hand-levers being fitted, as shown by the dotted lines, Fig. Sawyer, of Dover, is another well-known maker of fonr- wheelers.

This plan does not overcome the objections that have been raised to the four-wheelers in general. The tyro can, however, profit by the experience of others, and I give a few rules for his guidance as well as directions for his practice. The first point is to gain confidence in, and familiarity with, his wheel horse.

If he has had one made according to the directions in this manual, he will know its parts and proportions intimately. If he has but recently purchased one, he should walk by its side, guiding it by the handle until he knows its movements thoroughly. The second step of progress is to gain and keep the balance when astride on the saddle. After sitting for a few minutes in the velocipede, with the toes touching the ground, the vehicle may be placed on a slight incline, so that it may run down of its own accord. The handle must be gripped firmly and steadily, and the feet just lifted from the ground.

If there is a disposition to swerve either to the right or left, in consequence of the inclination of the body disturbing the equih- brium, a slight alteration of the pressure on the handle will restore the lost balance. He will find the sensation peculiar at firsts but a slight practice will habituate him to it. At first he will wish the handles were firmer, for each nervous twist that he giv6s it as the machine moves is calculated either to upset his balance or to turn the vehicle out of a straight line.

A few runs down an incline will pave the way for the first real lesson on self-propulsion. At fiirst, it will be better to lift each leg alter- nately, so that they may follow the movement of the pedal without exerting any force. This will habituate the knees and feet to the move- ment. It is during this practice that the arm of a friend or the ready hand of a skilled assistant is valuable, as there is always a dis- position to press too hardly on the pedal. It does not require the strength of an elephant to turn the driving-wheel, even on the roughest road j and in these preUminary trials it is quite unnecessary.

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The engraving Fig. Observe the positioa of the pedal, on which the left leg is Fij. HI machine to move. Ere he has brought the foot down, his right leg will find a reating- B Stabi. Jen Off. It is very important that the pedals should be placed at the angle indicated, as it gives the necessary impetus to the start. Should there be any danger of falling, take the foot off the pedals on the side and rest it on the ground, and commence afresh.

To alight it is only necessary to apply the brake by turning the handle. To slacken the speed, release the feet from the pedals and place them simultaneously on the ground. Beware of advancing vehicles and abrupt crossing of roads. The preliminary position of doing this is shown in Fig. The right leg is raised on to the cross rest beneath the angle, whilst the hands firmly grasp the handle. A slight efiTort will raise the left leg to the other side of the rest Fig. The velocipede will run now down hill by its own gravitation, whilst the rider controls its movements by the aid of the brake.

It requires but little practice to perform this feat adroitly. In fact, the greater the speed the more perfect the balance. In all early efforts the ascent of a hill should be avoided. It is very discouraging to the learner, and causes him to lose confidence in himself and his vehicle. When perfect com- mand is obtained over the velocipede, com- paratively steep hills may be ascended with- out much difficulty.

It is by no means impossible to turn a circle at full speed a little more in diameter than the length of the machine itself. One of the objections made to the use of the bicycle is that a slight impediment would cause it to overturn ; but practically this is not the case. A recent velocipede steeplechase at the gymnasium at Liverpool showed that the bicycle could perform wonders, going easily over large thick mats and planks spread about without upsetting the riders ; as many as three mats were cleared at one time in excellent style.

During this race Mr. Shepherd, one of the velocipedists, mounted on to the narrow seat, and balanced himself on one foot whilst the bicycle was going at a rapid rate. The vehicles used were the strong iron ones manufactured by Mr. Brown, of Liverpool. However popular and however common velo- cipedes may become, there will always remain a large section of the people to whom they will be and must be inaccessible, in conse- quence of their price. At first sight there seems no reason why so large a sum should be charged for them. The lowest price quoted, as far as I have seen, was Lisle, of Wolverhampton.

Bicycles have been sold in America as high as dollars, with ivory handles and ornamental platings of silver. In Paris they are sold at all prices, from two hundred to four hundred francs. Velocipedes de luxe, such as that presented to the Prince Imperial, mount up to any sum, according to the amount of rose- wood, carving, and aluminium bronze used.

Then there are numerous etceteras sold. Valise, lantern, oil-bottle, or grease-box, spanner in case of the machine getting out of order, or india-rubber cushions for the iron cross-bar in front of the bicycle, on which the feet rest when going down hill. A cover too is wanted for the vehicle, to preserve it from dust, and some add an indicator to mark the distance travelled.

This sum is larger in consequence of the liability of the bicycle to rough usage and acci- dents. The best material must. Cast iron has been used and failed. It was dangerous to the rider, and pecuniarily fatal to the manufacturer. In large manufactories a vaiietj of artisans are employed. Good hickoiy wheels with steel tires cost more than that sum. The driving-wheel should never exceed 86 inches in diameter. An ordinary-sized man would find 30 inches high enough, for the pedals may be graduated on a slide to suit the length of leg and stride required. The length between the centres should not exceed 44 inches.

The rear wheels should run free on a fixed axle. The axle of the driving-wheel is either a part of the iron wheel, or keyed on to it, fitted with either square nuts or ornamental caps to keep the pedal-stays firmly in their places. An exceedingly useful size, perhaps the most useful, is to have the driving-wheel 30 inches in diameter, and the rear wheel 27 inches. The length between the centres would then be SO inches. In the description of the "Dublin Pour- wheeler " ante, p. Some additional strength is secured by placing the spokes on the nave- stock alternately on one side and the other of the centre, as shown in Fig.

By far the cheapest plan is to buy a pair of tubular iron wheels. It should be made of bar steel, one inch square, and keyed into the wooden nave vrith flat keys, or what is better, a flat plate may be screwed on either side of the nave, with a square hole to fit the axle.

The first inch of the axle outside the nave must be rounded to receive the fork. The next inch should be left square to receive the crank Fig. The crank arm will then ran free when deBcending an incline. The groove or slot enables the crank-pin bearing the pedal to be adjusted to any length required. It inay be made of -inch iron. The pressure of the foot will always bring one of the sides into proper position. They are so shaped as to allow of the use of the fore-part of the foot, bringing the ankle-joint in play. The pattern B, which is weighted so as always to present the rf'ace to the foot, has many admirers.

Thus, if the wheel is 30 inches high, the fork would have to be 16 inches, and the shaA 9 inches, It should be filed square at the top to secure the fork of the Btemng-hsndle, and the upper part lapped to repeive A sot. A plain fork Pig. The handles should be of wood. The simplest made and the cheapest is that shown in Fig.

A good stout ash bar is within the reach of every country, and the majority of town lads ; a cooper, joiner, or wheelwright, if the lad has no tools, would shape it into a form similar to Pig. It should be some 4 feet long. The bow carrying a collar. A, should be made of iron, and screwed to the bearing-shaft, to receive the guide-fork, and a brass collar should be let into the shaft immediately beneath for the same purpose, as shown by dotted lines at B.

The two supports to the hind wheel. The saddle itself may be Fig, The brace-fork must be fitted on the driving-wheel by screwing the caps to the flange and oiling it well. The bear- ing-shaft or reach should now be placed on the fork. If neither india-rubber nor spring be handy, a few pieces of leather and cloth will be useful to prevent the jarring of the machine. The steering-handle may be fitted on and screwed down. It may require a few iron washers or rings to come firmly down to the collar ; but this must not be screwed too tight.

The V supports may now be secured in their places by bolts being run through the screw-holes and secured on the other side with nuts, so that the work will be exactly parallel. This is better than the plan shown in Fig. The fitst plan strengthens, and the latter weakens, the shaft. The rear wheel may now be placed. A strong but simple steel bolt, with a linch- pin or nut, will answer for an axle. A piece of catgut, or even sash-cord if knotted to the steering-handle and passed through a gimlet-hole in the shaft and attached to the Fig.

It is made of iron, but the shaded part is wood, which will require renewing occasion- ally. Now you have a bicycle ; ride, practise, and prosper. Whether that famous six or seven-wheeler, which is to carry a family party by a treadle movement, will ever become a reality it is difficult to say. The performance, to say the least of it, would be of a very cranky order.

Wind velocipedes are nearly as old as the hills.


Folkard, and the results chronicled even to the frightening of a farmer's wife and upsetting her in a ditch. Those on the lake of the Bois de Boulogne are " formed of a couple of canoes covered with canvas and joined together by two iron bars, between which is a paddle-wheel, put in motion by means of two pedals placed at the extremity of the arc. Some of the marine velo- cipedes suggested are manumotive machines, the movement of which is analogous to turning a mangle.

Machines of this kind have been used for years without any great results being achieved. It mighty and perhaps will be done; but then they vrill cease to be velocipedes.

Bead some of the latest ideas on the subject. The vehicle is to be constructed to carry two. The exhaust-pipe is in connection with the funnel of the boiler, the latter being located underneath the carriage, so that no incon- venience may arise from smoke in front. The heat, too, from the boiler may all be avoided by placing around it some non-conducting material. Tbe design seeioB Fig. Eaynes, Brnnton, Dumbell Tindal, and Co. A reference to the " Aids to Locomotioii," iBsned by the Patent Office, will show that the idea dates at least from S.

The American ice velocipede Fig. It is literally skating by means of machinery. The design originally appeared in Harper's WeeMy, and the machine is intended to be used on ice or frozen snow. The driving-wheel is armed with sharp points to prevent the possibility of slipping, which proved so fatal to M. The hind wheel is replaced by a pair of gigantic skates or runners, similar to those used in sleighs or ice-boats.

It is hardly likely to have a fair trial in England. John St. Leger Partridge, who has, or is going to bring out the "Victorine," or one-wheeled veloci- pede. Bell's Life informs the public, however, that this gentleman's labours in this direction have occupied the better portion of the last fourteen years.

It is his intention, we are told, ''to test publicly the merits of his machine by an open trial. He further offers to give one mile start for every twenty in the course decided on, the road selected to be a fair average one as to ascents and descents. This '' sensation '' match will doubtless be watched with much curiosity, aa the Americans have attempted progression en velocipede with positively one wheel.

Leger Partridge must have taken a lesson out of Mr. Dumbell's idea, which is a spherical ball, with compart- ments; or he must have adopted a squirrel- cage, or the clown's idea of riding on a barrel. The American idea is a combination of the two. Far more useful and interesting are the various forms of a child's velocipede.